Bibliography for the app Trees PNW


1. online sources


Adams, Robert, Juniperus maritima, the seaside juniper, a new species from Puget Sound, North America, Phytologia 89(3): 263-83 (Dec. 2007),


Adams, Robert, et al., Discovery and SNPS analysis of populations of Juniperus maritima in the Olympic Peninsula, a Pleistocene refugium?, Phytologia 92(1): 68-81 (Apr. 2010),


American Forests, Champion trees national register,


Aronica, Mark, Occupational asthma, Cleveland Clinic Center for Continuing Education,


Bentz, Barbara, Climate change and bark beetles of the western United States and Canada: direct and indirect effects, BioScience 60(8): 602-613 (2010),, Rainforests of Brazil,


British Columbia’s Travel Guide, The trees of British Columbia, Canada,


Brown, Peter, Rocky Mountain tree-ring research,


Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, WTU image collection,


Canadian Forest Service, Trees in Canada,


Chitjian, Mark et al., Final 1997 gridded ammonia emission inventory update for the south coast air basin,


Clark, Lt. William, & others, The journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition,


Cook, Will, Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of North Carolina,


Dalton, David, Nitrogen Fixation: Part I. The range of organisms that can fix nitrogen,


Del Tredici, Peter, A nitrogen fixation: the story of the Frankia symbiosis, Arnoldia 1995-1996 Winter:26-31,


Denison, William, Lobaria oregana, A nitrogen-fixing lichen in old-growth Douglas fir forests, OSU,


Douglas, David, Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in North America 1823-1827 (Cambridge U. Press 1917),


Douglas fir flagstaff at Kew,


Eland, Sue, Search botanical definitions,


Erection of Kew’s new flagpole,


Extrafloral nectaries,


Flag pole for Kew Gardens,


Franklin, Jerry F. and Halpern, Charles B., Pacific Northwest Forests (ch. 4 of M.G. Barbour and W. D. Billings (editors), North American Terrestrial Vegetation, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press 2000) at pp. 123-159,


Global Trees Campaign, Whitebark pine,


Green, David, et al., Mechanical properties of wood,


Hadfield, James, et al., Root diseases in Oregon and Washington conifers, USDA,


Hoag, Chris, et al., Field guide for the identification and use of common riparian woody plants of the intermountain west and Pacific Northwest regions (USDA 2008),


Lewis and Clark Herbarium,


Lewis and Clark’s Herbarium,


Li, Jie Jack, Top drugs: their history, pharmacology, and syntheses,


Little, Elbert, Atlas of United States trees, USGS digital representation of tree species range maps,


Little, Elbert, et al., Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (2nd vol.), USDA 1974,


McGowan, Kat, The secret language of plants, Quanta Magazine (Dec. 16, 2013)


Merhaut, Donald et al., How do large trees, such as redwoods, get water from their roots to the leaves? Scientific American,


Miles, Patrick, et al., Specific gravity and other properties of wood and bark …, USDA Research Note NRS-38,


MinuteEarth, Why are leaves green? part 1 (Mar. 15, 2013),


Mizell, Russell, Many plants have extrafloral nectaries helpful to beneficials,


Montross, Galena, et al., Nitrogen production from geochemical weathering of rocks in southwest Montana, USA, Journal of Geophysical Research vol. 118, pages 1068-1078 (Jul. 23, 2013),


Monumental trees,


Mosher, Milton & Lunnum, Knut, Trees of Washington (WSU 1914, reprinted 2003),


MPG North,


Muir, John, Steep trails: The forests of Washington (1918), Sierra Club, The John Muir Exhibit,


Muller, Derek et al., The amazing physics of water in trees, Science4All,


Nadkarni, Nalini, Canopy roots: convergent evolution in rainforest nutrient cycles, Science vol. 214, issue 4524, pp. 1023-1024 (Nov. 27, 1981),


Nash, Thomas (ed.), Lichen biology (Cambridge U. Press1996),


Native American ethnobotany database,


Natural Resources Canada, Trees,


Norris, Lori, The relationship between mycorrhiza and trees,


Oregon State Univ. College of Forestry, Common Trees of the Pacific Northwest (OSU updated 2011),


Parich, Roberta & Thomson, Sandra, Tree book: learning to recognize trees of British Columbia, British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, and


Parker, Lynn and Ross-Jones, Kiri, The story of Kew Gardens in photographs (Arcturus Publ. 2013),


Plants for a Future, Plant Database,


Reveal, James, Menzies, Lambert and Poiret, Discovering Lewis & Clark,


Reveal, James, David Douglas, Discovering Lewis & Clark,


Robbins, Jim, Bark beetles kill millions of acres of trees in west, The New York Times (Nov. 17, 2008),


Rozell, Ned, Alders go their own way in autumn, Geophysical Institute No. 2,275 (Univ. of Alaska Fbks. Sep. 10, 2015)


Schneider, Caroline, Soils overhead: characterizing canopy soils (Soil Science Society of America 2015),


Seely, Oliver, Physical properties of common woods,


Simard, Suzanne, How trees talk to each other (TED Talk 2016),


Simard, Suzanne et al., From tree to shining tree (Radiolab Podcast Jul. 30, 2016),


Snyder, Michael, What causes those white splotches on tree bark?, Northern Woodlands Winter 2008 (Jan. 5, 2009)


Song, Yuan, et al., Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signaling ..., Nature (Feb. 16, 2015),


The Gymnosperm Database,


Thompson, John, Company on beam with wood, Eugene Register-Guard (Jun. 12, 1983),,2869518&hl=en


Thompson, Jonathan, Move over, Douglas-fir: Oregon white oaks need room to grow,


Thompson, Robert, et al., Atlas of relations between climatic parameters and distributions of important trees and shrubs in North America—Revisions for all taxa from the United States and Canada and new taxa from the western United States: U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 1650–G (2015),  and


USDA Forest Service FEIS (searchable database),


USDA National Forest Service Silvics Manual,


USDA Plant Guide,


U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, News release, Whitebark pine to be designated a candidate for endangered species protection (Jul. 18, 2011),


U.S. Forest Service, White pine blister rust,


Waring, Richard H., Land of the Giant Conifers, Natural History vol. 91(10):54-63 (Oct. 1982),


Waring, Richard H. & Franklin, J.F., Evergreen Coniferous Forests of the Pacific Northwest, Science vol. 204, issue 4400, pages 1380-1386 (Jun. 29. 1979),


Washington Native Plant Society, Exploring native plants,


Washington Native Plant Society, Garry oak ecosystem,


Washington State Academy of Sciences, Opportunities for addressing laminated root rot caused by Phellinus sulphurascens in Washington’s forests (Dec. 2013),


Welch, Craig, The Seattle Times, Climate change, beetle may doom rugged pine (Nov. 21, 2011),


Welcome to Botanary, the botanical dictionary,


White, S.L., Douglas-fir: by any other name,


Winnall, Rosemary, Ants and extra-floral nectaries, Worcestor Record 32 (Apr. 2012): 18-19,


Wojtech, Michael, The language of bark, American Forests (Winter 2013),


Wood strength,


Worrall, Jim, White pine blister rust,


2. printed sources


Arno, Stephen & Hammerly, Ramona, Northwest Trees (The Mountaineers Books 2007)


Arno, Stephen, Timberline (Mountaineers Books 1984)


Bitner, Richard L., Pocket Guide to Conifers (Timber Press 2010)


Brockman, Frank, Trees of North America (A Golden Field Guide) (Golden Press 1968)


Claire, Rémy, Le Douglas, un Arbre Exceptionnel (Scheuer 2010)


Corbett, Julia & Scharf, Janet, Ever Changing, Ever Green – the Low-Elevation Forests – Olympic Nat’l Park (Northwest Interpretive Ass’n 1976)


DeMarco, Lois & Mengel, Jay, Identifying Trees of the West (Stackpole Books 2015)


Edlin, Herbert, What Wood is That? (Viking Press 1969)


Eifert, Larry, Field Guide to Old Growth Forests (Sasquatch Books 2000)


Gunther, Erna, Ethnobotany of Western Washington (UW Press 1945)


Hudson, Phillipa, A Field Guide to Trees of the Pacific Northwest (Harbour Publishing 2008)


Ingoglia, Gina, The Tree Book for Kids and their Grown-Ups (Brooklyn Botanic Garden 2008)


Jacobson, Arthur, Wild Plants of Greater Seattle (2nd ed. 2008)


Jensen, Edward,  Shrubs to Know in Pacific Northwest Forests   (OSU  2013)


Jensen, Edward,  Trees to Know  in Oregon    (OSU rev. 2010)


Kauffmann, Michael, Conifers of the Pacific Slope (Backcountry Press 2013)


Kershner, Bruce, et al., Field Guide to Trees of North America (National Wildlife Federation) (Sterling 2008)


Little, Elbert, National Audubon Society Field guide to North American Trees – Western Region (Knopf 1980)


Matthews, Daniel, Cascade-Olympic Natural History (Raven Editions & Portland Audubon Society 1988)


Norse, Elliott, Ancient Forests of the Pacific Northwest (The Wilderness Society) (Island Press 1990)


O’Connor, Geroganne & Wieda, Karen, Northwest Arid Lands (Battelle Press 2001)


Peterson, Maude, How to Know Wild Fruits (MacMillan 1914)


Petrides, George, A Field Guide to Western Trees (The Pederson Field Guide Series) (Houghton Mifflin 1998)


Petrides, George, Trees of the Pacific Northwest (Stackpole Books 2005)


Platt, Rutherford, 1001 Questions Answered about Trees (Dover 1959)


Platt, Rutherford, This Green World (Dodd, Mead & Co. 1942)


Pojar, Jim & MacKinnon, Andy, Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast (Lone Pine 2004)


Rapp, Valerie, Life in an Old Growth Forest (Lerner Publications Co. 2003)


Sept, J. Duane, Trees of the Northwest (Calypso Publishing 2011)


Spellenberg, Richard, et al., Trees of Western North America (Princeton Field Guides) (Princeton Univ. Press 2014)


Suzuki, David & Grady, Wayne, Tree – A Life Story (Greystone Books 2004)


Tudge, Colin, The Secret Lives of Trees (Penguin Books 2006)


Tudge, Colin, The Tree (Crown Publishers 2006)


Turner, Mark & Kuhlmann, Ellen, Trees & Shrubs of the Pacific Northwest (Timber Press 2014)


USDA, Asahel Curtis Nature Trail (available from Nat’l Forest Serv. Snoqualmie Ranger Dist.)


Vaillant, John, The Golden Spruce (Norton 2005)


Viereck, Leslie & Little, Elbert, Alaska Trees and Shrubs (USDA Forest Service 1972)


Watts, Tom, Pacific Coast Tree Finder (Nature Study Guild Publishers 2004)


Wohlleben, Peter, The Hidden Life of Trees (Greystone Books 2016)


Zobrist, Kevin, Native Trees of Western Washington (WSU Press 2014)